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Amplifying Environmental Politics: Ocean Noise

Antipode A Radical Journal of Geography - Wed, 06/28/2017 - 14:21
Abstract

Scientific evidence suggests that rising levels of anthropogenic underwater sound (“ocean noise”) produced by industrial activities are causing a range of injuries to marine animals—in particular, whales. These developments have forced states and development proponents into acknowledging ocean noise as a threat to marine economic activity. This paper delivers a Gramsci-inspired critique of the modernizations of ocean noise regulation being wrought by science, state and politics. Gramsci was acutely interested in the dynamic and social nature of scientific research, and his writings affirm science's powers and ambitions. At the same time, he was keen to observe how science participates in the process he called hegemony. Using examples drawn from Canada's West Coast, I suggest that capital is engaging ocean noise not only as a regulatory problem issuing from legal duties and legitimacy concerns, but opportunities linked to the commercialization of ocean science.

Shifting Horizons: Urban Space and Social Difference in Contemporary Brazilian Documentary and Photography


 

Drawing on the challenges of urban expansion and increasing population density facing contemporary Brazil, Shifting Horizons is an interdisciplinary investigation of the treatment of social difference in documentary film and photography and its potential to effect social and political change.



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Guidelines for Combustible Dust Hazard Analysis


  This book describes how to conduct Process Hazard Assessments (PHAs) for processes handling combustible solids. The book explains how to do a dust hazard assessment by using either an approach based on compliance with existing consensus standards, or by using a risk based approach. Worked examples in the book help the user understand how to do a combustible dust hazards assessment.

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Submerged Landscapes of the European Continental Shelf: Quaternary Paleoenvironments


 

Quaternary Paleoenvironments examines the drowned landscapes exposed as extensive and attractive territory for prehistoric human settlement during the Ice Ages of the Pleistocene, when sea levels dropped to 120m-135m below their current levels. This volume provides an overview of the geological, geomorphological, climatic and sea-level history of the European continental shelf as a whole, as well as a series of detailed regional reviews for each of



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The Urban Majority and Provisional Recompositions in Yangon

Antipode A Radical Journal of Geography - Wed, 06/14/2017 - 14:15
Abstract

Yangon is a city where the now predominant modalities of urban transformation arrived late, and after a prolonged period of political repression. As the urban system has been “set loose” to articulate itself to a broader range of inputs and dispositions, many residents attempt to remake long-honed yet fragile mechanisms of social interchange in provisional forms. This ethos and practice of provisionality emphasizes ensemble work aimed at recomposing the character of local district life in various locations across Yangon. Most importantly, it raises questions of how an urban majority—as a confluence of heterogeneous ways of life that has long been critical to making viable urban lives in the postcolony—have endured and can continue to endure in changing circumstances. The article draws from critical black thought as a means of generating heuristic concepts to explore the ways in which residents of several Yangon districts make productive use of the simultaneity of seemingly contradictory inclinations.

The Student's Two Bodies: Civic Engagement and Political Becoming in the Post-Socialist Space

Antipode A Radical Journal of Geography - Wed, 06/14/2017 - 13:55
Abstract

Student activism in Montenegro has remained largely unaccounted for in the growing body of literature on civic engagement and popular politics in the post-Yugoslav space. When students took their discontent to the streets of the Montenegrin capital in November 2011, the dual nature of the student body was rendered visible and audible: while the official student organizations framed their activity as an apolitical expression of discontent over studying conditions, several independent student associations positioned themselves as an extra-parliamentary opposition to the ruling establishment and called for the creation of a wide anti-austerity/anti-corruption coalition. Drawing from critical theory, political sociology, and human geography, this article addresses the questions of why, how, when, and where a part of the student body became political. I argue that a social context that lacks a tradition of politically engaged student movements provides opportunities for a nuanced understanding of political becoming of a hitherto apolitical social group.

Potemkin Revolution: Utopian Jungle Cities of 21st Century Socialism

Antipode A Radical Journal of Geography - Tue, 06/13/2017 - 10:10
Abstract

This paper explores the entanglement of ideology and materiality in the production of the spaces of 21st century socialism. “Millennium Cities” are currently being constructed for indigenous communities throughout the Ecuadorian Amazon, with revenues derived from petroleum extracted within their territories. As iconic spatial symbols of the “Citizens’ Revolution”, the Millennium Cities would appear to embody “the original accumulation of 21st century socialism”—a utopian state ideology promising the collective appropriation of natural resources without the dispossession of the peasantry. Drawing on extensive field research, we argue that they are better understood as a simulation of urban modernity that is symptomatic of the predominance of ground rent in South American capitalism, and which conceals the violent repression of an autonomous indigenous project of petroleum-based modernization. The original accumulation of 21st century socialism can therefore be interpreted as a “fantasy of origins”, which functions to reproduce the primitive accumulation of capital.

Resumen

Este artículo explora la relación entre ideología y materialidad en la producción de los espacios del socialismo del siglo veintiuno. Las “Ciudades del Milenio” están siendo construidas para las comunidades indígenas a lo largo de la Amazonía ecuatoriana, con las regalías procedentes del petróleo extraído en sus territorios. Como símbolos espaciales icónicos de la “Revolución Ciudadana”, las Ciudades del Milenio encarnan “la acumulación originaria del socialismo del siglo veintiuno”–una ideología utópica del estado que promete la apropiación colectiva de los recursos naturales sin la desposesión del campesinado. Mediante un extenso trabajo de campo, argumentamos que son entendidas mejor como una simulación de modernidad urbana, que es sintomática de la predominancia de la renta de la tierra en el capitalismo de Sudamérica, y que oculta la violenta represión de un proyecto indígena autónomo de modernización basada en el petróleo. Por ello, la acumulación originaria del socialismo del siglo veintiuno puede ser interpretada como una “fantasía de orígenes”, que funciona para reproducir la acumulación primitiva de capital.

Political Ecologies of Global Health: Pesticide Exposure in Southwestern Ecuador's Banana Industry

Antipode A Radical Journal of Geography - Tue, 06/13/2017 - 09:35
Abstract

Pesticide exposure in Ecuador's banana industry reflects political economic and ecological processes that interact across scales to affect human health. We use this case study to illustrate opportunities for applying political ecology of health scholarship in the burgeoning field of global health. Drawing on an historical literature review and ethnographic data collected in Ecuador's El Oro province, we present three main areas where a political ecological approach can enrich global health scholarship: perceptive characterization of multi-scalar and ecologically entangled pathways to health outcomes; critical analysis of discursive dynamics such as competing scalar narratives; and appreciation of the environment-linked subjectivities and emotions of people experiencing globalized health impacts. Rapprochement between these fields may also provide political ecologists with access to valuable empirical data on health outcomes, venues for engaged scholarship, and opportunities to synthesize numerous insightful case studies and discern broader patterns.

Resumen

La exposición a agroquímicos en la industria bananera del Ecuador evidencia procesos de ecología y economía política interactuando en diferentes escalas y que terminan afectando a la salud humana. Este estudio de caso ilustra como la ecología política de la salud puede aportar al creciente campo de la salud global. A partir de una revisión histórica de literatura y de datos etnográficos recopilados en la provincia de El Oro, Ecuador, presentamos tres áreas principales donde la perspectiva de ecología política puede enriquecer el campo de la salud global: caracterización perspicaz de trayectorias multi-escalares y ecológicamente relacionadas que afectan a la salud; valoración crítica de dinámicas discursivas tales como las narrativas escalares contrapuestas; y apreciación de subjetividades y emociones relacionadas con el ambiente entre personas que viven impactos de salud global. El acercamiento entre estos dos campos también puede proporcionar a los ecólogos políticos acceso a valiosos datos empíricos sobre salud, espacios para la praxis y oportunidades para sintetizar numerosos estudios de casos perspicaces para discernir patrones más amplios.

Intergenerational Inequality? Labour, Capital, and Housing Through the Ages

Antipode A Radical Journal of Geography - Pon., 06/12/2017 - 10:55
Abstract

This article examines the relevance of generational relations to emerging patterns of inequality in advanced capitalist societies, with a particular focus on inequalities related to housing wealth. At its heart is a critique of the increasingly prevalent argument that generational difference is a crucial axis of inequality today. It argues that while contemporary capitalist societies are certainly characterized by marked inequalities between generations and that the latter are manifested inter alia in housing ownership, understanding such inequalities principally in generational terms is problematic because they reflect deeper, more fundamental, structural inequalities and should therefore be conceptualized as such. The article suggests that the principal significance of generational relations to contemporary inequality dynamics actually concerns economic transfers rather than differences between generations. Within-family transfers of wealth, especially housing-related wealth, from older generations to younger ones tend to reproduce pronounced, structurally generated existing patterns of intra-generational inequality.

World Making, Critical Pedagogies, and the Geographical Imagination: Where Youth Work Meets Participatory Research

Antipode A Radical Journal of Geography - Sat, 06/10/2017 - 09:30
Abstract

Renewed interest in the critical geographies of education has raised productive yet under-examined synergies with reflections taking place among radical youth work and participatory research practitioners. In particular, such intersections point to important ways that the geographical imagination might advance a critical yet creative means of learning through the living material forces of everyday worlds. This paper examines this common ground through a collaborative, London-based case study exploring young people's sense of home and belonging in the inner-city. It argues that cross-overs between the praxis of participatory research and youth work offer generative potential to act alongside young people in the production of autonomous geographical knowledges. Specifically, the case is made for prioritising an imaginative, experiential and intersubjective pedagogical process of “world making”, as an alternative to practices that intervene in, act upon and ultimately “other” the everyday lives of young people.

Delocalization, Humanitarianism, and Human Rights: The Mediterranean Border Between Exclusion and Inclusion

Antipode A Radical Journal of Geography - Sat, 06/10/2017 - 09:30
Abstract

By reflecting on both the exclusionary and the inclusionary role of humanitarian migration and border management in the Central Mediterranean, this paper explores the relationship of humanitarianism with the delocalization of the EU border and with human rights. First, the paper analyses the role of human rights in the institutional humanitarian discourse about migration and border management at the Mediterranean EU border. The paper then analyses the Italian operation Mare Nostrum and, more generally, Italian humanitarianized border management in the Central Mediterranean. In doing this, it shows that humanitarianism contributes to the discursive legitimation and spatial delocalization of exclusionary policies and practices. Moreover, humanitarianism contributes to a symbolically and legally subordinate inclusion of migrants in the European space. While such humanitarian inclusion can be more inclusive than what human rights would require, it is posited as an act of grace rather than an enhancement of human rights. In both its exclusionary and inclusionary dimension, humanitarianism transcends and expands territorial boundaries by outsourcing responsibilities and enhancing delocalized border management.

Active Global Seismology: Neotectonics and Earthquake Potential of the Eastern Mediterranean Region


 

Neotectonics involves the study of the motions and deformations of the Earth's crust that are current or recent in geologic time. The Mediterranean region is one of the most important regions for neotectonics and related natural hazards. This volume focuses on the neotectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean region, which has experienced many major extensive earthquakes, including the devastating Izmit, Turkey earthquake on August 17, 1999. The event



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Coastal Storms: Processes and Impacts


 

A comprehensive introduction to coastal storms and their associated impacts

Coastal Storms offers students and professionals in the field a comprehensive overview and groundbreaking text that is specifically devoted to the analysis of coastal storms. Based on the most recent knowledge and contributions from leading researchers, the text examines coastal storms’ processes and characteristics, the main hazards



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Uranium


  Uranium, the most atomically unstable natural element on earth, has a unique place in the global geopolitics of resources. It provides energy to millions of people and its isotopes are used to power spacecraft and in nuclear medicine. But it is also at the heart of many of the planet's most deadly threats, including nuclear devastation and radioactive waste. Its mining has caused bitter conflict with indigenous peoples and its testing in nuclear weapons

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Uranium


  Uranium, the most atomically unstable natural element on earth, has a unique place in the global geopolitics of resources. It provides energy to millions of people and its isotopes are used to power spacecraft and in nuclear medicine. But it is also at the heart of many of the planet's most deadly threats, including nuclear devastation and radioactive waste. Its mining has caused bitter conflict with indigenous peoples and its testing in nuclear weapons

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Building More Inclusive Solidarities for Socio-Environmental Change: Lessons in Resistance from Southern Appalachia

Antipode A Radical Journal of Geography - Thu, 06/01/2017 - 08:10
Abstract

It is increasingly recognized that socio-environmental justice will not be achieved through liberal and cosmopolitical forms of activism alone. Instead, more diverse and inclusive solidarities must be achieved across political ideologies for transformative change. By engaging with one constituency often overlooked by mainstream environmentalists—rural, conservative Americans—we argue for a situated solidarity that can be forged among people whose views of nature, community, and politics differ significantly. This framework rejects totalizing expressions of global ambition that erase important place-based differences. To explore this ethic, we examine a localized anti-fracking campaign in western North Carolina to determine how place-based forms of environmental resistance can be brought in closer connection with the cosmopolitical movement for climate and energy justice. This requires that cosmopolitical movements make room for more customary forms of cultural politics, while conservative movements look beyond their own place-based struggles to resist mutually experienced forms of oppression.

Resumen

Es cada día más evidente que la justicia socioambiental no se logrará exclusivamente a través de formas de movilización liberales y cosmopolíticas. De lo contrario, el cambio transformativo requiere de solidaridades diversas e inclusivas que trascienden las ideologías políticas. Basado en nuestra colaboración-investigación con una población sobrepasado por ambientalistas convencionales—estadounidenses rurales y conservadores—proponemos una “solidaridad localizada” que se puede forjar entre poblaciones con distintos conceptos de naturaleza, comunidad, y política. Este marco rechaza a las expresiones universalizadores que borran de las idiosincrasias producidas por arraigarse en un lugar. Para explorar dicha ética de solidaridad, investigamos una campaña contra el fracking (la fracturación hidráulica) en el oeste de Carolina del Norte, para así determinar como las formas localizadas de resistencia ambiental se pueden acercar a los movimientos cosmopolíticos para la justicia climática y de energía. Concluimos que este acercamiento require que los movimientos cosmopolíticos se abren a distintos costumbres y culturas políticas, mientras que los movimientos conservadores miran más allá de sus luchas locales para resistir opresiones comunes.

A Hostile Takeover of Nature? Placing Value in Conservation Finance

Antipode A Radical Journal of Geography - Thu, 06/01/2017 - 08:10
Abstract

Conservation finance is a nascent field that claims to “deliver maximum conservation impacts, while, at the same time, generating returns for investors” (Credit Suisse/WWF). While geographers have questioned the ability of conservation finance to play a significant role in international biodiversity conservation, an emerging cohort of boutique private equity firms are actively generating returns on North American conservation projects. This raises the question: how are these firms generating profits, and in turn, returns for their shareholders? Drawing from a Marxian understanding of finance as redistributive, I argue that these firms are generating profits through a process similar to a corporate hostile takeover. Using the examples of ranchland and timberland investment in the United States, I show that (1) the materialities and historical geographies of these landscapes play a crucial role their monetization, and (2) shareholder returns are generated through a combination of traditional real estate sales and revaluations, public monies, and commodity production.

“Where every breeze speaks of courage and liberty”: Offshore Humanism and Marine Xenology, or, Racism and the Problem of Critique at Sea Level

Antipode A Radical Journal of Geography - Wed, 05/31/2017 - 04:45
Abstract

The 2015 Antipode RGS-IBG Lecture was delivered by Prof. Paul Gilroy on 2 September at the Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) Annual International Conference. Prof. Gilroy's lecture interrogates the contemporary attractions of post-humanism and asks questions about what a “reparative humanism” might alternatively entail. He uses a brief engagement with the conference theme—“geographies of the Anthropocene”—to frame his remarks and try to explain why antiracist politics and ethics not only require consideration of nature and time but also promote a timely obligation to roam into humanism's forbidden zones.