Prijavno okno

Fictive place

Progress in human geography - Wed, 11/09/2016 - 09:45

The construction of ‘fictive place’ is ever more common in capitalist production and exchange. It could be argued that the adoption of Geographical Indications (GIs) is a form of resistance to the homogenizing effects of globalization. In some ways fictive place-making can be seen as a means of adding value to land; however, we argue that fictive place has become a factor of production in its own right. We investigate this through a discussion of fictitious capital and the rise of GIs. We draw evidence from the wine sector and suggest that other networks are increasingly constituted of similar processes.

Moral re-turns in geography. Chora: On ethics as an image

Progress in human geography - Wed, 11/09/2016 - 09:45

This paper focuses on the geographical notion of chora, i.e. the earth as ethically shaped by human practices, according to my interpretation of Strabo’s Geography. I argue that this chora is bearer of a logic of the included third/middle, as it coincides with the logico-semantic third way of Plato’s notion of image. Re-interpreting today’s geographical turns in the light of a re-turn to Strabo’s chora/image, I argue that this return is moral, inasmuch as the geographical chora shows that ethics has preserved a logic of image and representation, which is the most ancient in Western thought, but also the most appropriate to contemporary issues. The geographical model of chora which I delineate here – a complex model on the basis of which ethics works in the same way as an image – is also the attempt to propose an alternative theory on the nature of image as well as an alternative interpretation of the role which ethics can play in current debate.

Geography and ethics II: Emotions and morality

Progress in human geography - Wed, 11/09/2016 - 09:45

In this second report, I consider the relationship between emotion and morality from a geographical perspective. Though traditional and contemporary engagements in moral philosophy and psychology offer a diverse range of theories and approaches to emotions and morality, few of these explicitly consider or incorporate the role of space. I consider theories of embodiment and relationality as one means through which emotions become collective and institutionalized, with a focus on emotional geographies and care. I conclude by reflecting on political emotions as conflictive but insightful signals of societal shifts in our moral emotions, and suggest that incorporating emotions may also provide a different way of thinking about the problem of distant care.

Urban political ecology II: The abolitionist century

Progress in human geography - Wed, 11/09/2016 - 09:45

Attention to the urban and metropolitan growth of nature can no longer be denied. Nor can the intense scrutiny of racialized, postcolonial and indigenous perspectives on the press and pulse of uneven development across the planet’s urban political ecology be deferred any longer. There is sufficient research ranging across antiracist and postcolonial perspectives to constitute a need to discuss what is referred to here as ‘abolition ecology’. Abolition ecology represents an approach to studying urban natures more informed by antiracist, postcolonial and indigenous theory. The goal of abolition ecology is to elucidate and extrapolate the interconnected white supremacist and racialized processes that lead to uneven develop within urban environments.

Social geographies II: Robots

Progress in human geography - Wed, 11/09/2016 - 09:45

This report examines how social geographers are engaging with the questions that robots and robotic technologies provoke. First, it discusses Marxist analyses of machines and troubles the role that robots play in social production and reproduction. Second, robots as actors in assemblages of sociospatial relations are interrogated for their role in state violence. Third, the dynamic change brought about by smart cities and their algorithmic subjects is discussed. The concluding section is speculative, discussing robots and the ethics of care. This report asks social geographers to reimagine their social geographies in relation to the role of robots in everyday life.

Relational upgrading in global value networks

Journal of economic geography - Tue, 11/01/2016 - 01:00
Johannes Glückler, Robert Panitz
Nov 1, 2016; 16:1161-1185
Articles

Structure and evolution of global cluster networks: evidence from the aerospace industry

Journal of economic geography - Tue, 11/01/2016 - 01:00
Ekaterina Turkina, Ari Van Assche, Raja Kali
Nov 1, 2016; 16:1211-1234
Articles

The changing economic geography of large U.S. law firms

Journal of economic geography - Tue, 11/01/2016 - 01:00
William D. Henderson, Arthur S. Alderson
Nov 1, 2016; 16:1235-1257
Articles

Co-worker networks, labour mobility and productivity growth in regions

Journal of economic geography - Thu, 09/29/2016 - 00:00
Balazs Lengyel, Rikard H. Eriksson
Sep 29, 2016; 0:271-27
Original Papers

A comparison of commercial and custom-made electronic tracking systems to measure patient flow through an ambulatory clinic

Background: Understanding how patients move through outpatient clinics is important for optimizing clinic processes. This study compares the costs, benefits, and challenges of two clinically important methods for measuring patient flow: (1) a commercial system using infrared (IR) technology that passively tracks patient movements and (2) a custom-built, low cost, networked radio frequency identification (RFID) system that requires active swiping by patients at proximity card readers. Methods: Readers for both the IR and RFID systems were installed in the General Eye Service of the Wilmer Eye Institute. Participants were given both IR and RFID tags to measure the time they spent in various clinic stations. Simultaneously, investigators recorded the times at which patients moved between rooms. These measurements were considered the standard against which the other methods were compared. Results: One hundred twelve patients generated a total of 252 events over the course of 6 days. The proportion of events successfully recorded by the RFID system (83.7 %) was significantly greater than that obtained with the IR system (75.4 %, p < 0.001). The cause of the missing events using the IR method was found to be a signal interruption between the patient tags and the check-in desk receiver. Excluding those data, the IR system successfully recorded 94.4 % of events (p = 0.002; OR = 3.83 compared to the RFID system). There was no statistical difference between the IR, RFID, and manual time measurements (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusions: Both RFID and IR methods are effective at providing patient flow information. The custom-made RFID system was as accurate as IR and was installed at about 10 % the cost. Given its significantly lower costs, the RFID option may be an appealing option for smaller clinics with more limited budgets.

Geographic disparities in late stage breast cancer incidence: results from eight states in the United States

Background: Late stage of cancer at diagnosis is an important predictor of cancer mortality. In many areas worldwide, cancer registry systems, available data and mapping technologies can provide information about late stage cancer by geographical regions, offering valuable opportunities to identify areas where further investigation and interventions are needed. The current study examined geographical variation in late stage breast cancer incidence across eight states in the United States with the objective to identify areas that might benefit from targeted interventions. Methods: Data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program on late stage breast cancer incidence was used as dependent variable in regression analysis and certain factors known to contribute to high rates of late stage cancer (socioeconomic characteristics, health insurance characteristics, and the availability and utilization of cancer screening) as covariates. Geographic information systems were used to map and highlight areas that have any combination of high late stage breast cancer incidence and significantly associated risk factors. Results: The differences in mean rates of late stage breast cancer between eight states considered in this analysis are statistically significant. Factors that have statistically negative association with late stage breast cancer incidence across the eight states include: density of mammography facilities, percent population with Bachelor’s degree and English literacy while percent black population has statistically significant positive association with late stage breast cancer incidence. Conclusions: This study describes geographic disparities in late stage breast cancer incidence and identifies areas that might benefit from targeted interventions. The results suggest that in the eight US states examined, higher rates of late stage breast cancer are more common in areas with predominantly black population, where English literacy, percentage of population with college degree and screening availability are low. The approach described in this work may be utilized both within and outside US, wherever cancer registry systems and technologies offer the same opportunity to identify places where further investigation and interventions for reducing cancer burden are needed.

A nonparametric spatial scan statistic for continuous data

Background: Spatial scan statistics are widely used for spatial cluster detection, and several parametric models exist. For continuous data, a normal-based scan statistic can be used. However, the performance of the model has not been fully evaluated for non-normal data. Methods: We propose a nonparametric spatial scan statistic based on the Wilcoxon rank-sum test statistic and compared the performance of the method with parametric models via a simulation study under various scenarios. Results: The nonparametric method outperforms the normal-based scan statistic in terms of power and accuracy in almost all cases under consideration in the simulation study. Conclusion: The proposed nonparametric spatial scan statistic is therefore an excellent alternative to the normal model for continuous data and is especially useful for data following skewed or heavy-tailed distributions.