Prijavno okno

The Determinants of Regional Freight Transport: A Spatial, Semiparametric Approach

Geographical analysis - Pet., 04/07/2017 - 09:51

In the context of modeling regional freight the four-stage model is a popular choice. The first stage of the model, freight generation and attraction, however, suffers from three shortcomings: first of all, it does not take spatial dependencies among regions into account, thus potentially yielding biased estimates. Second, there is no clear consensus in the literature as to the choice of explanatory variables. Second, sectoral employment and gross value added are used to explain freight generation, whereas some recent publications emphasize the importance of variables which measure the amount of logistical activity in a region. Third, there is a lack of consensus regarding the functional form of the explanatory variables. Multiple recent studies emphasize nonlinear influences of selected variables. This article addresses these shortcomings by using a spatial variant of the classic freight generation and attraction models combined with a penalized spline framework to model the explanatory variables in a semiparametric fashion. Moreover, a Bayesian estimation approach is used, coupled with a penalized Normal inverse-Gamma prior structure, to introduce uncertainty regarding the choice and functional form of explanatory variables. The performance of the model is assessed on a real-world example of freight generation and attraction of 258 European NUTS-2 level regions, covering 25 European countries.

Practical Finite Element Modeling in Earth Science using Matlab


 

Mathematical models have become a crucial way for the Earth scientist to understand and predict how our planet functions and evolves through time and space. The finite element method (FEM) is a remarkably flexible and powerful tool with enormous potential in the Earth Sciences. This pragmatic guide explores how a variety of different Earth science problems can be translated and solved with FEM, assuming only basic programming experience.



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Oil and Gas Exploration: Methods and Application


 

Oil and Gas Exploration: Methods and Application presents a summary of new results related to oil and gas prospecting that are useful for theoreticians and practical professionals. The study of oil and gas complexes and intrusions occurring in sedimentary basins is crucial for identifying the location of oil and gas fields and for making accurate predictions on oil findings.

Volume highlights include:



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Projekt EVS v Latviji

Obvestila - Wed, 04/05/2017 - 11:52
Kategorije: Novo na oglasni deski

Geographically Weighted Extreme Learning Machine: A Method for Space–Time Prediction

Geographical analysis - Pon., 04/03/2017 - 04:25

Spatial heterogeneity has been regarded as an important issue in space–time prediction. Although some statistical methods of space–time predictions have been proposed to address spatial heterogeneity, the linear assumption makes it difficult for these methods to predict geographical processes accurately because geographical processes always involve complicated nonlinear characteristics. An extreme learning machine (ELM) has the advantage of approximating nonlinear relationships with a rapid learning speed and excellent generalization performance. However, determining how to incorporate spatial heterogeneity into an ELM to predict space–time data is an urgent problem. For this purpose, a new method called geographically weighted ELM (GWELM) is proposed to address spatial heterogeneity based on an ELM in this article. GWELM is essentially a locally varying ELM in which the parameters are regarded as functions of spatial locations, and geographically weighted least squares is applied to estimate the parameters in a local model. The proposed method is used to analyze two groups of different data sets, and the results demonstrate that the GWELM method is superior to the comparative method, which is also developed to address spatial heterogeneity.

Basin-Wide Sediment Grain-Size Numerical Analysis and Paleo-Climate Interpretation in the Shiyang River Drainage Basin

Geographical analysis - Pon., 04/03/2017 - 04:21

Basin-wide sediment transport affects estimates of basin sediment yield, which is a fundamental scientific issue in drainage basin studies. Many studies have been conducted to examine erosion and deposition rates in drainage networks. In this study, we proposed a new approach using grain-size standard deviation model of sedimentary samples from different geomorphological units for numerical analysis and paleo-climate interpretation in the Shiyang River drainage basin, arid China. 1043 sedimentary samples were obtained from the upper reaches, the midstream alluvial plain and the terminal lake area; chronological frames were established based on 58 radiocarbon ages. Grain-size standard deviation model was introduced to examine sediment components according to grain-size and transport forces. In addition, transient paleo-climate simulations, including the Community Climate System Model version 3 and the Kiel models, were synthesized, as well as the results from PMIP 3.0 project, to detect the long-term climate backgrounds. Totally, we found four major common components, including fine particulates (<2 μm), fine silt (2–20 μm), sandy silt (20–200 μm), coarse sand (>200 μm), from basin-wide sedimentary samples. The fine particulates and fine silt components exist in all the sedimentary facies, showing long-term airborne aerosol changes and its transport by suspended load. There are some differences in ranges of sandy silt and coarse sand components, due to lake and river hydrodynamics, as well as the distance with the Gobi Desert. Paleo-climate simulations have shown that the strong Asian summer monsoon during the transition of the Last Deglaciation and Holocene was conducive to erosion and transport of basin-wide suspended load, also enhancing sediment sorting effects due to strong lake hydrodynamics. Our findings provide a new approach in research of long-term basin-wide sediment transport processes.

Management of the Effects of Coastal Storms: Policy, Scientific and Historical Perspectives


 

A large part of the world’s coastlines consists of sandy beaches and dunes that may undergo dramatic changes during storms. Extreme storm events in some cases dominate the erosion history of the coastline and may have dramatic impacts on densely populated coastal areas. Policy, research and historical background are essential elements that need to be interconnected for effective coastal planning and management.
This book discusses this framework, with



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Environmental Chemistry: An Analytical Approach


  Covers the essentials of environmental chemistry and focuses on measurements that can be made in a typical undergraduate laboratory

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Water Wells and Boreholes, 2nd Edition


 

Water Wells and Boreholes focuses on wells that are used for drinking, industry, agriculture or other supply purposes. Other types of wells and boreholes are also covered, including boreholes for monitoring groundwater level and groundwater quality. This fully revised second edition updates and expands the content of the original book whilst maintaining its practical emphasis. The book follows a life-cycle approach to water wells, from identifying



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Community as Urban Practice


  Community is a central idea in urban studies but remains conceptually vague and empirically difficult to work with. Building on existing theories of community, Talja Blokland offers an important contribution to defining and understanding this key theme.

Blokland argues that there has been too much focus on community as a stable construct, formed by durable relationships with kin, friends, social groups or neighbours. She draws attention to the non-durable

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Community as Urban Practice


  Community is a central idea in urban studies but remains conceptually vague and empirically difficult to work with. Building on existing theories of community, Talja Blokland offers an important contribution to defining and understanding this key theme.

Blokland argues that there has been too much focus on community as a stable construct, formed by durable relationships with kin, friends, social groups or neighbours. She draws attention to the non-durable

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